Multiple-Group Analysis and Measurement Invariance

This course by Professor Gordon Cheung covers measurement invariance concepts, testing methods, Mplus syntax and hands-on data analysis.


For any concerns regarding this course, please email


Friday 21 February 2020


Professor Gordon Cheung


This course assumes that participants have a basic of structural equation modelling and experience with using Mplus. Participants who do not possess these are strongly encouraged to attend the 2-day workshop on Introduction to Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus first.

Course outline

One of the crucial issues in cross-group, in particular cross-cultural studies, is the equivalence/ invariance of measurements across groups. In the past, researchers assumed that the psychometric properties of measurement are the same across groups when they conducted cross-group comparisons. However, such an assumption is usually invalid in cross-cultural studies.

This 1-day workshop provides:

  • the basic concepts behind measurement invariance and the assumptions involved
  • comparison of various methods in testing measurement invariance
  • Mplus syntax for testing measurement invariance
  • application of measurement invariance in theory development in cross-cultural studies. Hands-on data analysis with examples will be provided.

Fee structure

We have simplified our fee structure to make it easier to show up front. We no longer have an earlybird period, and the fees for this course are simply:

Student: $NZ225

Other: $NZ450


Cheung GW (2008). Testing equivalence in the structure, means, and variances of higher-order constructs with structural equation modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 593–613.

Cheung GW & Lau RS (2012). A direct comparison approach for testing measurement invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 15, 167–198.

Cheung GW & Rensvold RB (1999). Testing factorial invariance across groups: A reconceptualization and proposed new method. Journal of Management, 25(1), 1–27.

Cheung GW & Rensvold RB (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling Journal, 9(2), 233–255.

Vandenberg RJ & Lance CE (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1): 4–69.