New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation




Health Research Council of New Zealand


Nichola Shackleton


University of Auckland: Dan Exeter (Principal Investigator), Michael Brown, Jinfeng Zhao and Arier Chi Lun Lee

University of Otago: Sue Crengle


The New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation is a set of tools for identifying concentrations of deprivation in New Zealand. It measures deprivation at the neighbourhood-level in custom designed data zones that have an average population of 712. Data zones are aggregations of census meshblocks (approximately 8 meshblocks per data zone) and in urban settings they are just a few streets long and a few streets wide. They are designed to produce better small area information without losing their contents to suppression/confidentiality.


Darlington-Pollock F, Shackleton N, Norman P, Lee AC, Exeter D (2017). Differences in the risk of cardiovascular disease for movers and stayers in New Zealand: a survival analysis. International journal of public health. doi:10.1007/s00038-017-1011-4.

Yong R, Browne M, Zhao J, Chi Lun Lee A, Shackleton N, Crengle S, Exeter D (2017). Profiling New Zealand’s 20 District Health Boards using the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation and the 2013 Census.