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- » Confucianism, China, and the World: The Life of Jiang Xizhang
- » Displaying the Emotional Life of Early Modern Queens
The First Age of Industrial Globalisation 1815 - 1918: A Bibliographic Exercise
Project code: ART001
Focussing on the systemic and international parameters of globalisation in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, this summer research project looks to collate a bibliography of the history of global relations in the nineteenth century and during the First World War. The successful applicant will compile the bibliography, identify key texts in the bibliography and provide a commentary on those texts, highlighting useful chapters/readings on key themes relating to the history of industrialisation, imperialism, economic relations, international law, migration patterns, warfare, social and political revolutions, diplomacy and the communications revolution. The scholar will have the opportunity to focus on one of these themes in detail and write a historiographical essay based on their research on that theme.
The successful scholar will be asked to compile a bibliography of readings on the history of nineteenth-century international and global affairs as well as the history of the First World War. S/he will identify key texts and offer short synopses of these texts as well as identify key chapters relating to one of the following themes: industrialisation, imperialism, economic relations, international law, migration patterns, warfare, social and political revolutions, diplomacy and the communications revolution. Depending on their own research interests, the scholar will focus on one of these themes and write a historiographical essay (of no more than 3,000 words) on that theme.
The project suits beginning post-graduate students in History as well as students with a History major who have passed a Stage III course in History. Some understanding of the history of the nineteenth century is desirable and student who have taken courses on nineteenth-century history (or who have previous research experience in nineteenth-century history) are at an advantage.
Auckland Medical Museum
Project code: ART004
The goal of the project is to assist with a new initiative with which I am involved, to set up a Medical Museum in Auckland. The immediate goal is to establish a digital museum, and last year I worked with a Summer Scholar to design a plan to progress that goal (see below). Now it is time for some hands-on activity for a student, under my guidance, to work on developing a website where medical objects will be displayed and explained. There are many examples of digital museums in other subject areas, and material culture has recently attracted much attention in the discipline of history (with three books published on it in New Zealand over the past year). To date, within that new history genre there has been little focus on medical history, so this project is novel and exciting. The project will form a contribution to New Zealand history more broadly through a focus on an important aspect of that history, i.e. the health of past generations and how medical developments were played out locally or even initiated (such as Auckland-based Sir William Liley’s work on fetal medicine and Sir Graham Liggins work on premature babies).
The student would be asked to identify and catalogue medical equipment, photographs and documents (for example we already have in our possession a 19th century medical chest which will prove a useful starting point for understanding the everyday practice of medicine in the 19th century) and construct stories around these items drawing on contemporary medical textbooks and articles, and medical history. Primarily it will be an exercise in writing the social and cultural history of medicine in a way that is educational and accessible to the public.
Old medical texts will be primarily found at the Ernest and Marion Davis Library and online, for instance the British Medical Journal andLancet will be useful sources, going back to the 19th century. The Scholar will also draw on the New Zealand Medical Journal and theKai Tiaki: The New Zealand Nursing Journal, available through the Philson library.
Knowledge of the social history of health and medicine will be important, as the student will be expected to contextualise the objects discussed. Computer skills and web design skills will be helpful but not necessary.
Race Relations Meets Social Science in Aotearoa New Zealand and the United States: The Hunn and Moynihan Reports in the 1960s.
Project code: ART019
This project examines the origins, content, and reception of the Hunn Report in Aotearoa New Zealand (1961) and the Moynihan Report in the United States (1965). These two government-sponsored reports included research and recommendations on race relations in their respective countries. J.K. Hunn was Acting Secretary of Maori Affairs and Daniel Patrick Moynihan was Assistant Secretary of Labor when they authored their reports. Both reports presented social science research to assess the socio-economic status of Māori and African Americans and inform recommendations for reform. The Labour and Democratic parties were in power and concerned about racial inequality. Māori and African Americans were undergoing significant population shifts, migrating from rural and urban areas, and transforming their lives and communities. Although the sources of inequality presented in the reports differed—Hunn focused on government policies while Moynihan focused on family structure—the policy recommendations from both reports reflected the dominant, white views on what was best for Māori and African Americans: integration and assimilation. Political, intellectual, and public response was immediate, both positive and negative. Comparing these histories will contribute to our understanding of the meaning, reception, and impact of government policies on race in twentieth-century Aotearoa NZ and the USA.
The Summer Scholar will carry out two distinct research tasks: the first involves historical primary research, and the second involves research in the secondary literature. First, to ascertain the key events and developments around the origins and content of the Hunn and Moynihan reports and the political and public reception and response, the Scholar will conduct research in the Māori, NZ, and US historical newspaper databases available through our library in the 1960s and 1970s. We will provide the Scholar with a list of topics to look for, but we will encourage the student also to think broadly and follow the leads that emerge in the research process. The Scholar will download or photocopy, annotate, and index the relevant articles. Second, to put the reports in their historical, local, and national context, the Scholar will conduct bibliographical research in the relevant secondary sources, in both book and article form. We already have begun this task, but the Scholar could advance this process immensely. The Scholar will utilise secondary sources currently held in our library and will also draw upon the collections of other libraries through interloan. The Scholar will download, photocopy, or summarise, annotate, and index the relevant sources. Given enough time, we would supervise the Scholar in writing short essays assessing the state of the field or literature reviews on various topics, such as the reports’ origins, social science findings, recommendations, and the response of specific groups.
This project would best suit a Scholar who has studied history, is familiar with basic historical research, methods, and analysis, has solid writing skills, and has demonstrated the characteristics of initiative, goal-setting, and time management in their own tertiary studies. Ideally, the student has taken courses in Aotearoa New Zealand and United State history, so would have the background historical knowledge of race relations in the two countries and familiarity with the historiography. This will facilitate the Scholar pursuing the more focused and advanced research on the Hunn and Moynihan Reports, from the starting date of the scholarship.
Confucianism, China, and the World: The Life of Jiang Xizhang
Project code: ART022
Exactly a century ago in 1916, the “World-Wide Ethical Society” 万国道德会 in China gained widespread national support for promoting a Confucian vision of universal values that could unite humanity and put an end to war. Currently no scholarly monographs exist on the World-Wide Ethical Society. Historians of Chinese religion sometimes name it in passing as one of numerous popular associations with a moral or religious orientation that emerged during the Republican era (1912-1949). But no study yet has recognized the significance of the Society as an indigenous Chinese expression of universalist moral ideology. My study will also break new ground with its discoveries that the World-Wide Ethical Society brought together urban elites and rural peasants, men and women.
One of the key figures in the early years of the World-Wide Ethical Society was the famous but also enigmatic Jiang Xizhang江希张. This object of this summer project is to piece together the details about his life.
The Summer Scholar will use clippings that I have collected from Shenbao 申报 and the publications of the World-Wide Ethical Society 万国道德会. Because Jiang Xizhang passed away only recently, it is also possible that digital sources on the internet will yield credible information about his life and work, although rigorous winnowing must occur. The Summer Scholar will have to be resourceful and creative in consulting numerous digital archives, online repositories, and secondary sources that may give additional clues about the diverse contexts in which Jiang Xizhang lived his life.
The Summer Scholar will try to flesh out Jiang Xizhang’s life and personality beyond the bare bones that I currently have: In his childhood he was known across China as a child prodigy so promising that he was taken as a disciple by the great Kang Youwei, a former imperial minister. As a young man, he studied chemistry and international relations at the University of Paris, where he met and married his wife, who was also a student, an accomplished pianist, and the daughter of a Chinese diplomat. He began his career as a Chinese diplomat in posts such as Sydney, Australia, but eventually turned back to his homeland and his original interest in chemistry. He remained in China throughout the country’s tumultuous revolutionary transitions, working for many years as a chemist in a state-run enterprise.
The Summer Scholar should have working fluency in both English and Chinese. The Summer Scholar must have taken History 213/313 and/or History 222/322, or their equivalent, and received high marks, especially on research essay assessments.
Displaying the Emotional Life of Early Modern Queens
Displaying the Emotional Life of Early Modern Queens
Project code: ART018
Early modern queens were always on display, their actions and appearance the subject of endless reporting and speculation by courtiers and ambassadors, confessors and critics, and of course the public at large. Decorum was central to behaviour in court life, insisting that emotions were appropriate to the situation at hand. In general this seems to have necessitated the restraint of emotions in many public contexts, such as coronations and ambassadorial visits. Certain contexts leant themselves to the display of happiness: betrothal, marriage and the birth of a healthy child, while the death of a husband or child saw the display of grief.
Scholars have traditionally taken accounts of queens’ emotions at face-value, accepting that their emotional display was genuine and natural. While it is unsurprising that these situatons generated such emotions, this study asks how the emotional life of queens was conceptualised in word and image, if there are patterns of terminology and circumstance. In addition, it asks if there was a political and/or confessional purpose to displays of emotion in certain contexts.
The scholar will undertake research on three early modern queens and an archduchess, looking at contemporary accounts of their lives (ambassadorial accounts, letters, biographies, poems, memoirs) and painted, sculpted and engraved portraits:
Archduchess Isabella (Sourthern Netherlands)
Marie de Medici (France)
Anne of Austria (France)
Catherine of Braganza (England)
The scholar will create an annotated bibliography for each woman, organised chronologically, alongside contemporaneous visual depictions, with notes considering the portrayal (or lack thereof) of emotions. Printed primary sources will be the focus, but the scholar will also consult secondary sources. The scholar will consider the terminology used by early modern writers to describe emotions, the situations and locations in which they occur, the people who witness it, the reliabiity or agenda of the author, and the potential political and/or religious benefit of the display of the emotion. For images, the iconography of emotional display will be examined, for example, the wearing of widow’s dress or other symbolism.
If the scholar does not have French and/or Spanish, then other English queens will be examined.
If there are time constraints, the study will be limited to two or three women.
BA major in History, English, Art History, French and/or Spanish
French and/or Spanish would be an advantage given that there is quite a lot of primary literature on Isabella in Spanish and Marie and Anne in French.
Strong research and writing skills