Our Energy Centre members have produced a number of research publications, which include articles, reports, presentations and working papers.

Project reports

Polynesian Pathways to a Future Without Electricity Grids

This report was prepared by Peter Wilson (NZIER), Basil Sharp (University of Auckland), Kiti Suomalainen (University of Auckland), and Gareth Williams (Nexgen Energy Solutions).

Annual reports

Energy Centre Annual Report 2018-2019

Energy Centre Annual Report 2017-2018

Energy Centre Annual Report 2016-2017

Working papers

Understanding New Zealand's wind resources as a route to 100% renewable electricity (2020)

The New Zealand Government has a goal of a 100% renewable electricity system by 2035. Wind generation is expected to play a major role in achieving this target. However, there is limited public data on potential wind generation at possible wind farm sites.

Well-to-wheel comparison of emissions and energy consumption for electric vehicles: Oceanian perspective (2019)

Although electric vehicles are widely accepted to be the pathway for minimising traffic emissions, those powered by fossil dominated power sources may be a limited solution to reducing emissions. This study presents a comparative study of the Australian and New Zealand vehicle markets on emissions and energy consumption using well-to-wheel analysis. A vehicle uptake model is developed, based on sales targets set by both countries to study the long-term impacts of electric vehicles through 2050.

A systematic review of dynamic wireless charging infrastructure location problem for electric vehicles (2019)

This paper presents a review of the evolution of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology over the years and issues related to its infrastructure allocation in terms of real-world integration. The first part of the paper provides an overview of all the major progress and achievements made by different research organisations in the area of WPT technology for EV charging. The second part of
the paper assesses different modelling techniques used to optimise the location of static and dynamic wireless charging (DWC) facilities. This study also provides a synopsis of different socio-economic studies related to the DWC infrastructure allocation problem.

Transport emissions, road energy consumption, and economic growth: a cointegration analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve in New Zealand (2019)

This paper explores the causality relationship between economic growth, road energy consumption, and pollutant emissions from the transport sector in NZ during 1977 to 2013. The ARDL bounds testing to cointegration procedure is conducted, followed by the Granger causality approach, to test the validity of the transport-energy EKC hypothesis.

Wind, rain, fire and sun: towards zero carbon electricity for New Zealand (2019).

We examine different scenarios with large amounts of intermittent generation to achieve close to a 100% renewable electricity market in New Zealand. We use a cost based dispatch model to simulate market prices.

Market Power in the NZ wholesale market 2010-2016 (published September 2018)

This paper concludes that in the seven years from 2010 to 2016, power generators pocketed an extra $5.4 billion in profits over and above what they would have if the market was truly competitive, which is 36% of revenue.

Real-Time Pricing and Imperfect Competition in Electricity Markets (2017)

This paper examines the welfare implications  of shifting customers onto real-time price contracts in a setting where firms can exercise market power.

The Spatial Analysis of Wind Generation on Nodal Prices in New Zealand (2016)

This paper uses panel data models to estimate the impact of wind generation on nodal price.

Solar PV in a hydro based grid - A New Zealand case study (2016)

This paper examines the potential contribution that solar can make to New Zealand’s electricity mix, by looking at indicative statistics and running simulations.

Solar potential on Auckland rooftops based on LiDAR data (2016)

This document gives some background to the use of LiDAR data used for solar potential assessment and the details of the methodology used to treat the data.

Noninvasive Test Scheduling in Live Electricity Markets at Transpower New Zealand (2016)

This paper describes a novel scheme devised and implemented by Transpower, to allow for scheduling the large number of tests necessary to complete the installation of the new HVDC pole, in a live electricity market environment.  

Economic Growth and Transort Carbon Dioxide Emissions in New Zealand: A Co-Integration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (2018)

This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test to examine whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship holds between environmental degradation indicators from the transport sector and economic growth in New Zealand.

Journal articles

Peer-reviewed publications from the Energy Centre:


Majhi, R. C.,Ranjitkar, P., Sheng, M., Covic, G. A., & Wilson, D. J. (2020). Asystematic review of charging infrastructure location problem for electric vehicles. Transport Reviews, 1-24. 10.1080/01441647.2020.1854365

Wang, Y., Sharp, B., Poletti, S., & Nam, K. M. (2021). Economic and land use impacts of net zero-emission target in New Zealand. International Journal of Urban Sciences, 1-18.

Gholami, M. B., Poletti, S., & Staffell, I. (2021). Wind, rain, fire and sun: Towards zero carbon electricity for New Zealand. Energy Policy, 150, 112109

Poletti, S., & Staffelli, I. (2021). Understanding New Zealand’s wind resources as a route to 100% renewable electricity. Renewable Energy, 170, 449-461.

Poletti, S. (2021). Market Power in the New Zealand electricity wholesale market 2010–2016. Energy Economics, 94, 105078.

Wen, L., Guang, FT. & Sharp, B. (2021). Dynamics in Aotearoa New Zealand’s energy consumption between 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. Energy, 10.1016/

Sheng, M., Sreenivasan, A. V., Sharp, B. & Du, B. (2021). Well to Wheel comparison of light-duty vehicles: A scenario analysis of New Zealand and Australia. Energy Policy (A by ABDC).

Wen, L., Suomalainen, K., Sharp, B., Yi, M. & Sheng, M. (2021). Impact of
wind-hydro dynamics on electricity price: A seasonal spatial econometric
analysis. Energy, 238, 122076.


Poletti S. & Wright, J. Real-time pricing and imperfect competition in electricity markets. The Journal of Industrial Economics.

Zhang, W. W., Zhao, B., Gu, Y., Sharp, B., Xu, S. C., & Liou, K. N.  Environmental impact of national and Management subnational carbon policies in China based on a multi-regional dynamic CGE model. Journal of Environmental Management.

Ramesh Chandra Majhia, Prakash Ranjitkara, Mingyue Sheng, Grant A.  Impact of bus rapid transit on residential property prices in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Transport Geography.

Mingyue Sheng, Ajith Viswanath Sreenivasan, Basil Sharp, Douglas Wilson, Prakash Ranjitkar.. Economic analysis of dynamic inductive power transfer roadway charging system under public-private partnership-Evidence from New Zealand, Technological Forecast and Social Change.

Ming Yi, Yiqian Wang, Mingyue Sheng, Basil Sharp, Yao Zhang,  Effects of heterogeneous technical progress on haze pollution: Evidence from China. Ecological Economics.

Guang, F. & Wen, L. Growth pattern changes in China’s energy consumption.  Environmental Science and Pollution Research.   

Habibian, M., Zakeri, G., Downward, A., Anjos, M. F., & Ferris, M. (2020). Co-optimization of demand response and interruptible load reserve offers for a price-making major consumer. Energy systems-optimization modeling simulation and economic aspects, 11 (1), 45-71. 10.1007/s12667-018-0312-x.        

Habibian, M., Downward, A., & Zakeri, G. (2020). Multistage stochastic demand-side management for price-making major consumers of electricity in a co-optimized energy and reserve market. European Journal of Operational Research, 280 (2), 671-688. 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.037.


Yongxiu, H., Fengtao, G., Wen, L. and Sharp, B.  Energy intensity and its differences across China’s regions: Combining econometric analysis and decomposition analysis, The Energy Journal.

Sheng, Mingyue; Sharp, Basil. Commuter’s Transport Mode Preferences and Social Network Effects in New Zealand.  Journal of Transport Economics and Policy.

Sheng, M.; Sharp, B. Aggregate road passenger travel demand in New Zealand: A seemingly
unrelated regression approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 124, 55-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2019.03.005 Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

Suomalainen, K., Eyers, D., Ford, R., Stephenson, J., Anderson, B. and Jack, M., Detailed comparison of energy-related time-use diaries and monitored residential electricity demand. Journal of Energy and Buildings. 

Downward, A., Chowdhury and S., Jayalath, C. An investigation of route-choice in integrated public transport networks by risk-averse users. Public Transport.


Downward, A. and Philpott, A. Market power and forward prices. Economic Letters, vol. 166, issue C, 6-9.

Habibian, M., G. Zakeri, A. Downward, M. Anjos and M. Ferris. Co-optimization of demand response and reserve offers for a major consumer. Energy Systems, DOI 10.1007/s12667-018-0312-x.

Habibian, M., Downward, A. and Zakeri, G. Multistage Stochastic Demand-side Management for Price-Making Major Consumers of Electricity. Optimization Online. 

Hoicka, C. and MacArthur, J. From tip to toes: Mapping community energy models in Canada and New Zealand. Energy Policy 121: 162-174, June 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.06.002.

MacArthur, J. and Matthewman, S. Populist resistance and alternative transitions: Indigenous ownership of energy infrastructure in Aotearoa New Zealand. Energy Research and Social Science 2018:43.

Zakeri, G. and Pritchard, G. A review of simulation usage in the New Zealand electricity market. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics, 231, pp. 23-37.

Zakeri, G., Pritchard G, Bjorndal E. and Bjorndal M. Pricing wind: A revenue adequate, cost recovering, uniform price auction for electricity markets with intermittent generation. INFORMS Journal of Optimization.

Zhang, W.W., Sharp, B. and Xu, S.C. (2019). Does Economic growth and energy consumption drive environmental degradation in China’s 31 provinces? New evidence from a spatial econometric perspective. Applied Economics.

Sheng, M., Sreenivasan, A.V., Sharp, B. Wilson, D. and Ranjitkar, P. Economic Analysis of a Dynamic Inductive Power Transfer Roadway Charging System under Public-Private Partnership – Evidence from New Zealand. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 

Wen, L. Sharp, B. and Sbai, E. Spatial Econometric Estimation of the Merit-Order Effect of Wind Penetration and its Implication for Wind Farm Investment Decisions in New Zealand. The Energy Journal. DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.2.lwen


Batstone, S., G. Pritchard, G. Zakeri. Non-invasive test scheduling of the grid over live electricity markets, Interfaces.

Berka A. Community energy in the UK: A Short History, Chapter 59 in: Handbook of Participation and Energy Transitions (Eds. Holstenkamp L., Radtke J.), Springer VS Wiesbaden. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-09416-4, ISBN: 978-3-658-09416-4.

Berka A., E. Creamer. Taking stock of the local impacts of community owned renewable energy: a review and research agenda. Sustainable and Renewable Energy Reviews. 

Berka A., J. Harnmeijer, B. Slee. Crossing the Rubicon: the 2015 UK renewable electricity reforms and implications for Scotland. Chapter 8 in: A Critical Review of Scottish Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Policy: Implications for the Independence Debate, Wood G. and Baker K. (Eds.), London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-56898-0, ISBN: 978-3-319-56898-0.

Harnmeijer, A. A comparative analysis of the costs of onshore wind energy: is there a case for community specific support?, Energy Policy.

MacArthur, Julie L. “Chapter 55: Community energy in Aotearoa/New Zealand” in Lars Holstenkamp and Jörg Radtke (eds) Energy Transition and Participation, Springer VS.

Suomalainen, Kiti, Vincent Wang, and Basil Sharp. Rooftop solar potential based on LiDAR data: Bottom-up assessment at neighbourhood level, Renewable Energy, 111, 463-473.

Zakeri, G., J. Khazaei and S. Oren. Single and Multi-settlement Approaches to Market Clearing under Demand Uncertainty, Operations Research.


Downward, A., D. Young, G. Zakeri. Electricity contracting and policy choices under risk-aversion, European Journal of Operational Research, 2016, 251, 3, pp 846-859.

Flores-Quiroz, A., R. Palma-Behnke, G. Zakeri, R. Moreno. A column generation approach for solving generation expansion planning problems with high renewable energy penetration. Electric Power Systems Research, 2016, 136, pp 232-241.

Suomalainen, K. and B. Sharp. Electricity Sector Transformation and Renewable Energy Development in New Zealand, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, Issue 3, 2016.

Wu, A. Philpott, G. Zakeri. Investment and generation optimization in electricity systems with intermittent supply, Energy Systems, 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s12667-016-0210-z.


Browne, O., Browne, O., Poletti, S., & Young, D. (2015). How does market power affect the impact of large scale wind investment in 'energy only' wholesale electricity markets?. Energy Policy, 87, 17-27. 

Burnell, J., B. van Campen, N. Kortright, J. Lawless, J. McLeod, K. Luketina, B. Robson. Sustainability of TVZ Geothermal Systems: The Regulatory Perspective, Geothermics-TVZ Special Issue, August 2015.

Cleland, N., B. Young, G. Zakeri. Boomer-Consumer: a model for load consumption and reserve offers in reserve constrained electricity markets, Computational Management Science, 12 (4), 519-537, 2015.

Puschel-Lovengreen, S., R. Palma-Behnke, B. van Campen. Systematic Tool to Plan and Evaluate Demand Side Strategies during Sustained Energy crises in Hydrothermal Power Systems, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, October 2015.